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National legislation

Nationally, South Africa’s natural environment is governed by a wide range of legislative acts, including

The Marine Living Resource Act (MLRA) for the first time recognizes the subsistence fishing sector and incorporates the fact that many coastal communities of South Africa derive their livelihoods directly from marine resources.  This act has greatly widened the parameters of management requirements since 1999, contributing to the overall improved marine legislation. 

Sustainable Coastal Livelihood Initiatives 
To ensure the sustainability of natural resources around the coast and to secure the future livelihoods of coastal communities, several Sustainable Coastal Livelihood Initiatives were introduced at provincial level.  Most of these programmes form part of the National Coastal Management Initiative driven by civil society, government (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism), and private businesses.  The aim of the programme is to identify, promote, and help to establish non-consumptive or alternative coastal livelihood resources, and it requires community ownership.  A total of 17 Sustainable Coastal Livelihoods projects have been registered in South Africa since 1999 and their total estimated value is R360 million.

International treaties and conventions
South Africa is also a signatory to a wide range of international treaties and conventions, including:

Marine Litter : worldwide

A number of agreements with global coverage are relevant to the issue of marine litter. A number of actors on the international scene are, directly or indirectly, involved in activities aimed at decreasing the generation and distribution of marine litter.

UN organizations, conventions. agreements and projects:

Other organizations, conventions, agreements and projects

Good examples

  • Good examples : Examples of global action (cases and best practices) taken to deal with and prevent marine litter pollution.